The Nobel Committee awarded the 2022 Prize in Physics to Alain Aspe, who studied the violations of Bell's inequality, experimented with confused photons and conducted work on quantum informatics, and the award ceremony will take place on 10 December.
Research by all three scientists has focused on complex quantum particles and violations of Bell ' s inequality. In the 1960s, Irish physicists John Stewart Bell formulated inequalities that make it possible to check whether the quantum mechanical system contains hidden parameters — they cannot be measured experimentally, but they affect the results of measurements of other parameters of the system. If hidden parameters exist, the hypothesis of local realism is fulfilled, and the object ' s properties exist before they are measured, and the object ' s properties only affect its local environment. Bell ' s inefficiencies are experimentally verifiable — their performance and non-compliance gives different probabilitys of states.
The American John Klauser tested Bell's inequality in the 1970s and proved that it was violated, so there are no hidden parameters in quantum mechanics, which means that her probabilistic nature is not the result of an incomplete description.
In the early '80s, a French scientist, Allen Aspe, as part of his Ph.D. thesis, developed Clauceer's ideas and was able to ensure that the initial conditions under which a couple of confused photons were released did not affect the measurement results; Aspe also proved that Bell's inequalities were not being met.
Finally, for the first time in 1997, the Austrian Anton Cylinger showed the possibility of quantum teleporting using confusing photons, i.e. changing the polarisation state of one particle when changing the condition of the other, which was at a distance from the source.