Rebuilding the Sun on Earth: how physicists solved the main problem of thermonuclear fusion

Rebuilding the Sun on Earth: how physicists solved the main problem of thermonuclear fusion

The physicists from the US Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory have taken an important step towards nuclear fusion, and they have discovered a source of thermal collapse that precedes reactor malfunctions, which is responsible for damage to the thermonuclear installations at the currents, and development will solve one of the most serious problems on the path to thermonuclear fusion.

Why is it so important to achieve thermonuclear fusion?

Nuclear fusion is a physical process that triggers our sun, and it occurs when atoms come together at extremely high temperatures and pressures, forcing them to release a huge amount of energy by merging with heavier atoms.

Scientists around the world are working to capture and direct the process of atomic fusion on Earth to develop a clean, carbon-free and possibly inexhaustible energy source. They have already made several attempts, but only for a few seconds. One of the reasons is thermal collapse.

Why is there a heat collapse, and what is it?

One of the problems that scientists have not previously suspected in the study of thermal collapse is the three-dimensional form or topology of disorderly power lines caused by turbulence.

It has caused the creation of tiny "holms" and "salin", where some particles are delayed and others roll down the "holms" and affect the walls of the object.

As part of a new study, scientists have traced the collapse to three-dimensional disturbances of powerful magnetic fields, which are used in thermonuclear plants as substitutes for powerful gravity, which holds back the reactions of synthesis in celestial bodies, such as the Sun.

However, in laboratory experiments, these fields are decoupled because of the volatility of the plasma. In the event of a serious breach of the line, the field becomes completely disorderly, "complicated as spaghetti," written by scientists. As a result, a large number of particles stick to the wall of the currentacca. The heat that arises may damage the walls of the thermonuclear plant.

What did scientists do?

In a new study, scientists have come up with a way to create a special map to understand the topology of the power lines, which brings down magnetic "holms." Without them, most electrons will be captured and will not be able to cause the thermal tumours observed in experiments.

For example, scientists have modeled thermal cooling as a complex three-dimensional structure. It is noteworthy that they have avoided excessive simplifications that so often mislead physicists. This topology is known to be difficult to understand because of the complex interaction between electrical and magnetic fields. PPPL researchers have used the GTS laboratory code to understand it.

How does it work?

The code simulates the effect of turbulence on the movement of particles. It shows how the electrical field created in the installations drops particles between magnetic field power lines and then contributes to the resulting movement of captured particles.

Why does it matter?

In terms of physics, the new study explains how plasma is losing energy towards the wall in the presence of magnetic field force lines, which is very useful in finding innovative ways to mitigate or prevent thermal grazing and plasma destruction in the future.