In a new study, scientists have identified small molecules that destroy amyloid balls that cause Alzheimer's disease.
The green tea molecule, EGCG , is known to destroy the tau fibers, long multilayer threads, which form the fibrill balls that attack the neurons, causing their death.
Thousands of J-shaped tau-molecular layers linked together form the type of amyloid fibrill that forms balls, first discovered almost a hundred years ago by Alois Alzheimer in the patient's postmortem brain with dementia. These fibers grow and spread in the brain, killing neurons and causing brain atrophy. Many scientists believe that the removal or destruction of the Tau-Wolcon can stop the progress of dementia.
EGCG has been extensively studied, but never used as a cure for Alzheimer's disease. The fact is that its ability to destroy taw fibres is best found in water, and it doesn't easily penetrate cells or brains. Besides, once the EGCG enters the bloodstream, it connects with many proteins other than the taw fiber, which weakens its effectiveness.
To study the mechanisms by which EGCG destroys tau fibers, researchers extracted its balls from the brains of people who died of Alzheimer's disease and incubated them during different periods of time with EGCG. Within three hours, half of the fibers disappeared and those that remained were partially degraded. 24 hours later, all the fibers disappeared.
It is noteworthy that EGCG molecules are one of the most important organic substances of green tea. Based on data from an epigallocatechine gallate, scientists have studied a library of 600,000 small molecules useful to the brain and nervous system that can potentially connect to the same sites.
Of the hundreds of molecules the size of 25 atoms or less, scientists have chosen two, CNS-11 and CNS-17. They work like EGCG in green tea, but they get better into the brain tissue, and they think that these molecules are candidates for medication that will help to treat Alzheimer's disease.