Glioblastoma is the most aggressive and common primary malignant brain tumor in the adult population, only 15 to 17 months after diagnosis, and five years of survival.
Glioblastoma is a cancer that develops in the brain or spinal cord, which is the most aggressive form of astrocytoma, a type of glyoma that arises from glyonic cells called astrocytes. These cells support and protect neurons, which are neurons of the brain.
As Kuanyin Hu explains in a press release, the Associate Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the School of Pharmacy of the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the lead author of the study: ".
Recently, Quanyin Hu and his colleagues have developed a hydrogel that stimulates the patient's immune system, which can be injected into the brain after surgery to destroy the remaining cancer stem cells, and the results are published in a magazine.
Hydrogels that increase immunity
From a practical point of view, the team created a hydrogel that can be injected into the brain cavity remaining after the tumor is removed. The Hydraulic method of delivery works well because it completes the brain cavity, then slowly releases the drug into the surrounding tissue and contributes to the anti-cancer immune response.
So the hydrogel is filled with nanoparts designed to infuse and reprogram certain types of immune cells called macrophagus. These immune cells usually destroy infectious agents in the body. But in the tumor environment they can be transformed into a form that suppresses the immune system and contributes to the growth of cancer. And because of the inflammation left by the operation, these macrophagus tend to deviate from their original target, to the location of the operation, which can contribute to the recurrence of cancer.
Hu says, "".
To achieve their goal, researchers have included nanoparticles that carry CAR genes that are specific to residual cancer cells. These nanoparticles can modify macrophagus to target CD133 glycoroteine, which is a marker for cancer stem cells.
So pre-clinic results on mice models show that hydrogel treatment has successfully generated specific stem cell glyomas of CAR-macrophagus.
The next step for Hu will be to test hydrogel on larger animal models, as well as to monitor long-term performance and toxicity after an initial period of four to six months.
Hu points out, "".
Therapeutic approach can also be applied to other aggressive sound tumours, such as breast cancer, which is known to recur because it takes advantage of macrophagus in post-op fields and allows the generation of macrophagus specific to residual cancer cells in situ, without further invasive surgery.
And earlier this year, the same team developed biodegradable gel, which also improves the immune system's ability to keep cancer at a distance from the surgical removal of tumors. In fact, gel tested on mice releases special drugs and antibodies that simultaneously destroy macrophagus that promote cancer at the point of surgery and activate T-cells to attack cancer.
In the light of these results, the authors conclude: "".