Scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have found replacements for silicon transistors to create a new generation of powerful processors for artificial intelligence and machine learning. Using simple and accessible compounds of phosphorus and silicon, scientists have created analog logical elements that work much faster than silicon transistors and a million times faster than synapses in the human brain.
The neurons in the complex can be quite large, while the new logical elements -- proton resistors -- can be thousands of times smaller. The size of the brain can be so powerful analog processor that it will be incredible by modern standards. However, there are still a lot of discoveries to be made, although the core element is that scientists have already invented.
Proton resistor is an isolated area of oxide, where a large electromagnetic field is used to run a certain number of protons. The field to protons is applied to the protons with a limit that can almost burn the material, as scientists say. In practice, this voltage is about 10 V, applied to the film with several nanometers thick. The extreme tension of the field in a minimum volume forces the protons to literally "teleport" to the resistance area or back if polarity is changed. This gives the rate of work at nanoscenes, which is much faster than the speed of neurons in the brain.
Since any number of protons can be imputed to the resistor area, this simply allows each of them to be weighted in a simple way, thus eliminating the need for a long process of learning the neural network. The neural network in the size of such analog processor is created almost instantaneously, which is very important for practical work. The processor as a mass of resistors works as normal, only the data need not be moved between the processor and memory during processing, which also accelerates processing and saves consumption, because no data outside the processor is sent.
Protons as "fillers" of resistors are not random. Protons are used as solid electrolyte in the form of popular inorganic phosphosilicate glass. It is compatible with silicon and is accessible. In addition, by ensuring proton conductivity, it serves as an electron locker, making areas with resistors isolated for electric current. The main achievement of the discovery was the use of phosphosilicate glass in the structure of the proton resistor, which gave it all the wonderful properties that scientists have told it about.