Physics thinks that's what happened in the first three minutes of the universe

Physics thinks that's what happened in the first three minutes of the universe

About 13.8 billion years ago, something mysterious, called the Big Bang, happened. It took just over seven days to create the universe as we know it. But it was the first three minutes that the most important events took place. So that's what physicists think happened in the first three minutes after the Big Bang.

The Plank Age

Shortly after the Big Bang, the first generation was the Planck era. At this particular time, the temperature of the universe was 1032 K, so high that all four fundamental forces of nature existed together as a single superpower. This era lasted 10 to 43 seconds. Because on Planck scale, modern physical theories cannot be used to calculate what happened, very little is known about Planck's physics.

The Age of the Great Association

The era of TVO or "Great Joint Theory" began when the universe was only 10 to 43 seconds, and lasted until 10 to 36 seconds after the Big Bang. After the Planck era, the fundamental force of gravity separated from the three other fundamental forces of the standard model. So the electro-soft interaction, strong interaction and electromagnetic interaction were united in the TSB era. Moreover, by the end of this era, the temperature dropped to 1,029 K from 1032 K.

Inflation and electromagnetic age

In this era, strong power separated from two other forces, thus leaving behind weak and electromagnetic power as a single force; indeed, space inflation began when the universe was only 10 to 33 seconds old; during inflation, the universe expanded exponentially and grew from the size of proton to the size of an equivalent fist; during inflation, the universe expanded at a speed greater than the speed of light, but the exact physics of this intensive expansion is still unclear.

Space inflation ended very soon, and then the universe began to expand normally, now the universe is 10 to 32 seconds, the temperature has fallen to 100 trillion Kelvins and, most importantly, W and Z bosons have also formed.

Quark Age

So now all four fundamental forces have acquired their individual identity. All available particles can interact with the Higgs field and can gain mass. However, the temperature is still very high for quarks to merge and form adrones, such as protons and neutrons. In the standard model of physics, quarks are one of the smallest objects.

The Hadron Age

The Hadrons are a class of particles consisting of two or more quarks. Shortly after the quark era ended, the Adrons' era began one microsecond after the Big Bang. By then, the temperature had fallen to such an extent that the quarks of the previous era could have merged into Hadrons. Although the small asymmetrics of the substance and antimatter at earlier stages had led to the elimination of the antiadrones, most adron/antiadron pairs had destroyed each other.

So by the end of this period, there were basically only light stable Hadrons, protons and neutrons, and the adron era ended one second after the Big Bang.

The Lepton Age

When the universe got old for one second, its temperature became sufficiently favourable to form another class of elementary particles — leptons. The leptons are a kind of elementary particles in nature, and therefore they no longer consist of any component particles such as adrones. The electron is a classic example of a lepton. Thus, by this time the leptons and antileptons began to form, and this production continued for 10 seconds. The leptons and antileptons remained in thermal equilibrium, as the photons' energy was still high enough to form electron positron vapours. However, the universe was still not transparent, as these free electrons could easily scatter photons.

Commencement of nucleosynthesis

So far, the universe contains protons, neutrons, electrons, and photons. Photons have exceeded massive particles billions of times. All four major forces have acquired their modern form. Now the time has come to begin the most important process of nucleosynthesis.

Simply put, nucleosynthesis is a process in which new atomic nucleons are formed from pre-existing nucleons and smaller nuclei, which is the process by which most of the heavier elements in our universe are formed.

So now, at the age of two minutes, the temperature of the universe has fallen below 1.2 billion degrees Kelvin. At this temperature, the average energy of the photon was 1.8 x 10-14 J, which was equivalent to that of the Deuterium nuclei core. The core of deuterium consists of proton and neutron, held together by strong nuclear interaction. So two minutes after the Big Deuterium explosion, the deuters were formed by a merger of protons and neutrons. This was the first time since the Big Bang, when the universe contained the cores more complex than one proton.

Finally, three minutes after the Big Bang, the temperature of the universe fell below 1 billion degrees Kelvin, at which time the average energy of the photons was 1.5 x 10 to 14 joules, which is equivalent to the energy of the helium nuclei, and at the age of 3 minutes deuterium, protons and neutrons combined with various possible processes to form helium kernels.

In two words, in the first three minutes after the Big Bang, the protons and neutrons began to blend together, forming deuterium, and the deuterium atoms then joined together, forming helium-4. These three minutes were followed by a series of different periods and various processes of nucleosynthesis that formed the universe in which we live today, but the first three minutes formed a period that gave us the most fundamental elements of our existence, that is, hydrogen and helium, and prepared the ground for advanced processes. This certainly makes the first three minutes after the big explosion the most important minutes in the history of the evolution of our universe.