The James Webb Space Observatory first showed an impressive potential for discovering the secrets of the universe. The first images revealed two candidates for the outermost galaxy, when our universe was 300-400 million years old, and it was only a week ago that astronomers presented a candidate for an even more distant and more ancient galaxy that could have appeared earlier than 300 million years after the Big Bang.
Astronomers have yet to carry out a spectroscopic analysis of the detected "red" objects, confirming that the value of red displacement for them really corresponds to distance/time rather than cause other factors or even interference.
Last week's candidates for the outermost galaxies — GLASS-z11 and GLASS-z13 — have red offsets of z11 and z13 respectively, which means that the light from them has been coming to us for about 13.5 billion years.
Like other elementary particles, photons also follow wave nature, so that the movement of photons is not direct, but on a wave that prolongs the route, and the further away from us is a photon-emitting object, the more "over" they have to travel. This is all easy to use in calculations.
In addition, dust and gases in intergalactic space absorb shorter waves of light emitted and can reach us from the depths of the universe, mostly photons of the red and infrared areas of the spectrum. From all of this, scientists extract information to more or less accurately determine the age of the objects observed — in this case, candidates for the oldest galaxies.
The new candidate for the outermost galaxy is CEERSJ141946.35+55632.8. The Hubble telescope images were also used to refine the data.
According to the theory of the evolution of the universe presented by astrophysics, which is largely supported by observations of space, galaxies have begun to form in the Renionization era, which is similar to the cranial displacement of z15 or about 550 million years of the Big Bang Field. The James Webb allows for a better view of objects in this era and even a deeper look, using effects such as gravitational lensing. The first observations show that at that time the galaxy could have been more intense and more frequent than the theory suggests. This means that Earth science has many things in mind, and this requires adjustment.