50 years ago, an automatic interplanetary station called Venera 8 landed

50 years ago, an automatic interplanetary station called Venera 8 landed

On July 22, 1972, at 11.37 a.m., the automatic interplanetary station Venera 8 entered the atmosphere of the second planet of the solar system, marking the half-century anniversary of the event, Roskosmos and the S. A. Lavochkin NGO published a documentary on the Vener 7 and Venus 8.

The Venus 7 mission helped Soviet specialists to clarify what was happening on the planet and to modify the design of the following apparatus accordingly: the calculation pressure was reduced from 150 to 105 atmospheres and the temperature was reduced from 540° to 493° C.

"Venera 8" started from the Baikonur launch site on 27 March 1972 and took 117 days to travel to the planet; the aerodynamic braking slowed down the AMC's speed relative to the planet from 11.6 km/s to 250 m/s; at an altitude of 55 km, a parachute was set up above its surface, with a further flight of 55 minutes; the machine landed 12 hours and 32 minutes from the morning terminator, a line of light between the shadow and the illuminated parts of the planet.

The telemetry "Veneroy 8" was broadcast throughout the landing period and 50 minutes after it was over, and air readings were largely repeated by the previous mission: temperature 470 ± 8° C, pressure 90 ± 1.5 atmospheres; ammonia in the atmosphere was measured twice during the descent, ranging from 0.01% to 0.1%; surface illumination at 55° sun angle was 350 ± 150 lux; this was observed on Earth on a persmural day.

It was then calculated that in the sun, the illumination on the surface of Venus should be between 1,000 and 3,000 lux. This is about 10 times lower than that taken in the shadow of the Earth on a clear day. However, under a high layer of clouds, the planet's atmosphere is sufficiently transparent to be photographed.

The experts also evaluated the wind speed at different altitudes, which required measuring the radial component of the speed of the unit at a Doppler displacement signal: 50 m/s at a height of 50 km and 0 to 11 km at a height of 0 to 2 m/s. This refers to the radial wind, which is directed from the terminator to the daytime side, where the planet rotates.

The radiation meter helped to assess the dielectric permeability and density of the soil on Venus, which was loose, with a density of 1.4 g/cm3. The gamma spectrometer estimated the presence of radioactive elements in the ground: their content and ratio were approximately the same as the Earth ' s granite species.